<![CDATA[KNU DESIGN, LLC - Scott\'s Thoughts]]>Sun, 28 Aug 2022 09:06:23 -0400Weebly<![CDATA[DC Code Check: Residential Life Safety Systems]]>Fri, 19 Aug 2022 04:00:00 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/dc-code-check-residential-life-safety-systemsSingle-family homes, townhouses, and duplexes in Washington, DC are subject to the following codes:
  • 2012 ICC Residential Code (IRC)
  • 2017 DC Construction Code
  • 2017 DC Existing Building Code (if we're talking about a renovation and/or addition)
The three types of life safety systems most likely to be required  are sprinklers, smoke detectors/alarms, and carbon monoxide detectors/alarms (which are often combined with smoke alarms). 
See the 3 flowcharts below to determine whether your project requires each of these. 
If sprinklers are required, their design must follow NFPA 13D or ICC P2904, which are fed from a domestic water system and are much simpler than NFPA 13 or NFPA 13R systems for commercial and low/midrise multifamily buildings, respectively.
FAQ: Alterations under the existing building code are categorized as Level 1 (remove and replace), Level 2 (reconfigure up to 50%) or level 3 (reconfigure over 50%).
<![CDATA[Code Check: Residential Renovation + Sprinklers in Montgomery County]]>Thu, 16 Sep 2021 14:03:23 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/code-check-residential-renovation-sprinklers-in-montgomery-countyThe International Residential Code requires an automatic sprinkler system in all single-family and two-family dwellings (par R313.2 in IRC 2018). The IRC has an exception: sprinklers are NOT required for additions or alterations to existing buildings that are not already sprinklered.  But...

Montgomery County added their own provision (in Regulation 4-15AMII daed 8/3/2015) adding paragraph R313.4 requiring that sprinklers be installed in existing houses when either:
  • 50% or more of the gross floor area of the existing building is demolished. This excludes basements. The gross floor area in this one and only case is measured to the inside of exterior walls; it includes stairs, interior walls, and everything else inside.
  • 50% or more of the exterior walls are demolished (not including foundation). Oddly unlike the floor area provision, this is measured from corner to corner on the exterior, and includes any part of the wall such as top plate or sheathing.
However, Montgomery County does NOT require sprinklers for additions if the house is not sprinklered - regardless of size (unless, of course, in building that addition you are also doing 50% demolition of either floor area or exterior wall).

For new houses, the county has required sprinklers since 1/14/2004. If by some fluke your house was built after that without sprinklers, you will have to add them when you renovate or expand. Residential sprinklers are designed based on NFPA 13D, which is significantly simpler than NFPA 13R (multifamily) and NFPA 13 (taller multifamily and commercial). 

<![CDATA[PROGRAMMING: 9 Points to Ponder]]>Tue, 29 Sep 2020 23:53:44 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/september-29th-2020OR, IT TAKES A PERFECT PERSON TO PROPERLY PLAN TO PLAN

​​The impact of great architecture depends on quality construction.
Quality construction requires a detailed, deliberative design.
A deliberative design begins with a perceptive program.
What is programming? It is the preparation for a design and construction project, an documentation of your desires and expectations. Sometimes called a Brief, the Program of Requirements - at its simplest – is an outline of your needs. It may be just a list of spaces and their approximate sizes. If you represent a large client, it can be a multi-volume technical document. Both of those examples, however, miss the real juice: an opportunity to chart a path to not only success but to spiritual glory. Well, almost.
You may have heard horror stories about projects overrun by monsters that eat the joy out of designing & building, leaving a mess for you to clean up. Those monsters didn’t emerge full force midstream, but were born quietly at the start of the project in one of the areas below. Like a plane crash, it takes several small errors and oversights to fail big. Focusing real effort on the pre-design phase of a project reduces those risks and makes it more likely you will delight in the outcome forever.
Following are 9 arenas of thought I recommend you consider as you prepare for your design journey. Different people and different projects will focus on some more than others, and the depth of discovery may vary, but the wider you think and the deeper you dig, the less wandering there will be during design and the happier human you will be.
This is where most people start. And immediately stop. This is what you want (or at least what you’ve settled on) – say, a new 3-bedroom 2-bath vacation house with an open-plan kitchen/dining/social space plus garage and a swimming pool. Oh! And a skylight and a fireplace.  That’s fine, we need to know this, but there is so much more. Are you open to innovative ideas that don’t fit into standard definitions? Let’s get more specific on whether those bedrooms are for bunk beds or married adult children, how many people will eat together, let’s talk about what/how we are cooking (Frozen Pizza? Julia Childs?). Elaborate on performance expectations such as the degree of abuse vs. care that is expected, your attitudes about resiliency (surviving or recovering from disasters), are there health issues such as asthma that may drive design choices?
What constraints are there? Someone on your team will know building and zoning codes. There may be property or community legal restrictions, utility issues, material availability, or existing conditions such as hazmat or soil issues. For instance, is your electric meter right in the middle of where you want to build an addition? Some may require further investigation and/or testing before launching full design efforts.
The second most likely thing (after making a list of rooms they want) that people do when getting ready to design is to collect pictures. These archetypes are a useful reference point, and even more so if you identify what you are focusing on: was it the material palette or the framing of a view? Consider including some negative archetypes that illustrate what you want to avoid, particularly if there is nuance. Look beyond what you know and identify your first impressions of the great works of architecture throughout history (including more recent famous architects).
But remember – design is not shopping: please do not use the imagery to identify the ingredients that we should just shake & bake together and hope for the best. The images and, more importantly, the things you say about them, are parables that give insight into who you are and how we can best express that in a unique building.
Aesthetics is not how something looks – it is a branch of philosophy. Without getting too philosophical, think of it as how what you see affects how you think and vice versa. Recent neurological research finds that the impulse from the eye is intermingled with memory before being processed by the brain. Which means that we literally don’t see (quite) the same thing. Which explains a lot? Point being, don’t just pick out pics of what you “like”: think about the meaning of beauty to you, and how you respond to different types of spaces and places. I for one believe beauty to be a positive expression of the essence of a thing, and when there is a disconnect between appearance and the underlying substance, we only have pretty, which is pretty confusing.
As humans strive towards enlightenment, many of us become more aware of our impact. Understanding your core values is critical to the proper design of the spaces you inhabit. This may define an overt and objective goal, such as minimizing carbon output, or may be a subjective attitude that sways design attitudes, such as independence. Design is a multi-disciplinary balance of issues ranging from cost to code, efficiency to expression. It is helpful to outline how important is it to you for the design to be, say, energy efficient, or carbon neutral, or blend into the neighborhood, preserve or create natural habitat, feel safe, be expressive, or any of a hundred other concerns. These are just examples. Think of, and for, yourself.
This is the part that most people skip. Some of us aren’t introspective, and it can be hard. To create inspiring architecture that stirs you, this is the most important part. Articulate the fundamental why of the project. Although it may seem like something to save for your therapist, let your architect know why that is your why: do you want a simple serene space because you are afraid of losing control due to childhood trauma, or because you aspire to minimalism for religious reasons?
Two tactics: Ask why you are undertaking this project, and dig into “why that” 5 levels deep - then back up and ask different why questions at each level.  If you aren’t up for that, then make a list of adjectives that you hope will describe the finished project, and those that won’t. Pick the top and bottom three and explain why.
The where of your project can define everything. Engage your architect early – even before you have selected a specific site: we all know Fallingwater, but the client had a different spot on their property in mind until their architect saw the potential. Okay, maybe your site options are less dramatic, but as part of the project planning stage, do a site analysis of environmental and other factors, do due diligence on property restrictions, and refine your views about the relationship between the building, it’s site, and it’s context. Will zoning variances be required, or are there historic or HOA boards who have input on what you do?
Maybe I should have listed this sooner, since it is the other most-likely-to-be-done part of everybody’s program: their budget. Construction is too expensive, and costs notoriously rise as you go along. Your budget should include design fees, permitting fees (sometimes there are several layers to this), construction costs, and also the cost of paying the interest on your loan until the project is complete. Think about furniture and curtains too! Maintain a contingency fund even after you sign a construction contract; define a bigger cushion to early estimates and budgets. Self-control is hard for most people because there are so many really good reasons to spend just a little more. Plan on some of that, or your experience will be too ascetic.
Define and communicate where the money is coming from and when. Meet with your lender now to get a handle on what you can afford – it’s never enough, but let’s at least point the team in the right direction. There is the occasional client for whom the budget is all you want to spend; for most it’s all they CAN spend – be clear with your architect what your circumstances are.
Understand your personal risk / reward behaviors. Define how you are going to get this built. The most common construction delivery methods are:
Design-Bid-Build, the old standby. You choose your architect, design it, you competitively bid it, then you hire your preferred contractor to build it (with your architect typically serving as your representative).
Negotiated Bid: You choose both architect and contractor, design it with price-checks along the way, the contractor bids to their subcontractors only and you negotiate the price, then continue into construction. More and more projects are going this way.
Design/Build: You hire one entity for entire process. Usually, the contractor then hires an architect (or plays architect themselves – that’s worse); sometimes the architect is actually also the contractor (that’s better!). Don’t be fooled by the false security this approach gives you – it still costs what it costs, and I have seen several clients disappointed in the reduced checks & balances (and sometimes reduced design quality) this brings.
Multiple Prime: Owner hires all subcontractors directly, without a general contractor. Not for the faint of heart. You may save money, but if you are skipping work to play contractor, you may lose because you can’t include your time in your tax-deductible mortgage.
The pros and cons are too much to discuss here, but evaluate your options, review them with your team and plan a path best-suited for you.
The design process itself can take several tacks. Do you expect just basic services for a “builder’s set” of a rudimentary design with only enough detail to get a permit – leaving you to select all the products and materials? Or will you avail yourself of the full skill set of your architect to develop alternative designs, refine them with care, communicate and confirm them with renderings in virtual reality (not as expensive as you think), provide energy modelling, pursue a green rating program, develop custom detailing for specialized systems or features, design or select the furniture and finishes?  
Create a timeline for design, permitting, bidding, and construction. Depending on the project scope, design could be anywhere from a few weeks to a year, particularly if there is an Entitlement Process. Permit review timeframes vary from same-day to a year; don’t just ask your local permit office because their answers may be misleading. Ask locally-experienced professionals how long it takes. Construction bids take 2-6 weeks, and there are usually a few weeks of contract negotiation prior to construction Notice To Proceed. You can define the construction schedule based on your constraints (which may affect the cost), or ask bidders to present their own schedules. In either case, pencil in some delays, particularly until the construction is out of the ground.
As always, the most important thing! Who will do what as the “Owner” - will one spouse make design decisions and the other make cost/scope/schedule decisions? Who will answer the architect’s call, or the contractor’s? If you have children, find ways to engage them in the process – it’s a great learning opportunity.
What professionals will you engage? An architect (who may hire structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and/or civil engineers) and a contractor, maybe also a land surveyor, landscape architect, interior designer, permit expediter, or others for specialized projects. I recommend any professional providing design of any type be hired through your architect, who coordinates the overall design for consistency, rather than setting up competing designers. When selecting your team, you will consider experience, skill, and cost, but I suggest you focus on relationship: having a team that you love to work with makes all the difference.
ONE MORE THING: Don’t worry too much, have faith; move forward in the face of uncertainty. No one has ever done it all right – and most projects work out fine, despite hurdles. Don’t let programming become an obstacle to progress. When it comes to pre-project planning, more is more, but less can be enough.
<![CDATA[Architecture betrays our true values]]>Sat, 08 Feb 2020 16:50:24 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/architecture-betrays-our-true-values
Recent rumors, very widely reported - I call them rumors because they involve both politics and news, and these days we should check our gut reactions until we have more evidence of their veracity -  indicate people who influence the President are drafting an executive order to require that federal buildings default to a classical style. Article:https://tinyurl.com/smjrs6c The actual draft: https://lnkd.in/ey2qgWN This comes hot on the heels of President Trump's insult to the profession of architecture - for the first time ever, the Architect of the Capitol is NOT an architect, but an airport engineer.

Ironically, the same draft order seeks to form a President’s Committee for the Re-Beautification of Federal Architecture. I think we can all agree that not all federal architecture is beautiful, but doubt if we can agree on specific examples. The two examples (see pics in sidebar) that seem to have agitated this group into trying to order the rest of the country around are good examples of buildings architects stereotypically enjoy while others may not - which is an issue the profession needs to work on - but one can find plenty of poorly executed classical works too, a few of which are also in the sidebar. Committees and review boards seem like a good way to decrease the number of truly bad works, but I haven't found one yet that yields the best works either - committees tend to approve B+ and A- quality, and scare away A+ efforts. 

While the guiding principles of GSA's Design Excellence Program should be periodically should be refined https://tinyurl.com/quylb7e , it seems that as long as we have an evolving and multi-faceted democracy, Principal #2 should be cast in stone, "The development of an official style must be avoided". The very writing of this draft order makes some of us wonder whether the President's team believes in our democracy or seeks to dictate their own values upon us. 

The AIA has made it easy for you to email your own opinion to the White House at this link https://p2a.co/eH3Mx8N; I encourage you to replace their default text with your own message. Here is mine, trying to keep it short for Presidential focus:

DO NOT designate any preferred style federal buildings. The values of liberty and freedom espoused by this nation, and particularly by its conservative wing, are best expressed by allowing a range of architectural expression.
DO work towards more beautiful buildings. Start by showing that it matters to you by increasing the design budgets & expectations, and by having a national dialogue about the true meaning of beauty - an expression of our values that elevates us from our circumstances.
DO encourage architecture that is uniquely AMERICAN and site-specific, not adopted from other regimes or trends.
STOP BIG GOVERNMENT and let communities design for themselves. Encourage a participatory design process for federal buildings.

<![CDATA[Confluence of Excellence - a review]]>Thu, 16 Aug 2018 19:13:00 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/confluence-of-excellence-a-review

Turning off the street, your tires sink in deep gravel and you are transported. This masterpiece is more about the place than the maker. Clearly, many hands were involved, but they all wore one glove. 

Confluence Park, designed by Lake|Flato Architects, Rialto Studios, and Matsys, is part of the extended River Walk Trail along the San Antonio River. It all starts back at the street. After that first gravel clue, you cross several bands of paver blocks, forcing you to reassess your gait. Then you realize the bands delineate the parking spaces. Should you arrive by bus or foot, a plaza rests between two mounds. On the left tiers of Corten planters create a lush hill; on the right is a gentle mound of dark gravel, more loosely planted. Both have radial projecting concrete walls/benches. In addition to creating a gathering area at this gateway, they serve as sound buffers. The traffic noise is quickly replaced by buzzing cicadas, rustling wind, stream’s cacophony, and the occasional whir of a cyclist coasting down the River Walk Trail. Despite going there to archi-geek-out on the structure, I found myself tuning into ever-smaller scale plants and animals.

An arched gateway greets you from every approach. These tilt-up concrete petals are smaller siblings of the 22 petals that form the tour-de-force pavilion. The easy, loose arrangement has irregular flowing edges that sometimes seem to envelop and other times genuflect to the sky like the blowing grasses. Reminiscent in their domed forms of some Spanish missions, the upper surfaces have a waterproof coating over their broom-finished surface that reads like a leather saddle seat. Yet despite their massiveness (20 tons each; the thermal lag is appreciated in the heat) they feel light and fresh due partly to their light tone but mostly thanks to the delightful gap that sinews between each petal (with only 2 pin joints), creating joyfully meandering traces of light on the ground interspersed by a changing dappled pattern from the acrylic lenses that perforate the slabs.
Another fun detail is the donor plaques - H-Section steel segments in varying lengths forming sideways Morse Code columns (I couldn’t discern a message but hope there is one). They engage you with movement so as you enter the building your perspective changes – shifting to one side, the names on the flanges become visible.
I am sure this place is mobbed sometimes but I had the pleasure of visiting repeatedly at off-hours. There was always someone enjoying nature’s breath passing through the cracks of dappled and flowing light under the petals. One senses the underlying geometry – 5 triangular petals form a pentagon around a central column/drain, with 4 pentagons clustered to form squished hexagons, overlaid with the meandering light-slices (and like a fugue, more explicitly repeated yet reinterpreted in the paver patterns) – but it is so layered and complex that your main experience is movement and openness. No wonder the place is popular as a yoga hut.
The natural setting drives everything about this design; even the concrete forms emphasize the breeze and respond to the sun itself - by intervening in its path and delivering it in smaller doses, you feel the sun’s omnipresence and fluidity. The stated purpose of the park is to educate us humans about the surrounding ecosystems and demonstrate stormwater capture (used to flush the toilets and probably for irrigation). The building is really just one huge gargoyle to direct rainwater into the grates. Yet the deeper lesson is more quietly expressed – giving one a reason to stop, listen, feel the wind, appreciate the shade, delight in the flow of light, and adjust your perspective. This building engages you with the weather; I look forward to seeing how the weather changes it over the decades.

<![CDATA[Future Density]]>Sat, 14 Jul 2018 07:00:00 GMThttp://knu.design/scotts-thoughts/future-density​Humanity has too well followed the call to multiply, and we gather ever closer. Sky City in Changsha, China promises to be the ultimate crowded tent city, popping out 220 stories with homes for 30,000 people in 210 days - faster than human gestation. While some renderings show a surrounding forest, it sorely lacks the character and sense of place found in Soleri’s arcologies. A city’s vitality stems not from a few grand gestures but from the multitude’s evolving patterns and places. There is always pressure for a denser core (thus the debate about DC’s height limit); Sky City resets the vertical bar that some will inevitably chase in envy. But we have the creativity to be better, not bigger. We have lots of land, but urbanity’s advantages and the projected population boom (28% in 40 years), and the needs for wild places and agriculture, mean we will live closer and smaller. That calls for better places. Architects must act now to define quality densification. Encourage incremental densification everywhere, seek radical urbanization at transformative hubs, but fight to preserve open space where we have it: we will need it.